The Library of Obscure Wonders

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Roots

beech2Charles Darwin, aside from evolution, came up with the “root-brain” hypothesis along with his son Francis, in their book The Power of Movement of Plants. This suggests the roots act like a brain network. Ignored at the time (evolution was enough to deal with without the suggestion of trees having brains as well) it is only now beginning to be taken seriously.

I have been sitting drawing beech tree roots today. They are fascinating indeed. Largely unseen they undertake a big proportion of a trees practices and are often the same size as the tree above ground. Their skin can have an interesting textured quality and they curl around each other like snakes which is very good to draw. Where I live in London you can see the roots bursting through the Tarmac, looking distinctly like monsters from the underworld. What happens in roots and around roots is just as strange as what they look like.

Roots search the soil for water and minerals that they absorb and then send up to the leaves for photosynthesis. A root grows from its tip which it pushes forward through the soil. The root tip can detect the pull of gravity and aims itself downwards into the soil. Behind the root tip are root hairs that grow into the soil to gather supplies.

Fungi have symbiotic relationships with roots, this is called Mycorhizass. There are two main kinds of mycorrhiza, ones that penetrate the roots and ones that surround the roots without penetrating. The fungi transfer essential minerals such as nitrogen and phosphorous from decaying matter to the tree. The fungi cannot photosynthesis so the tree does this for them, providing the fungi with energy.

Other advantages to such relationships include speeding plant growth, stimulating fine root development and lengthening the life of the roots. They can also protect plants from drought, predators (such as nematode worms), and micro-organisms that cause disease. In areas polluted by toxic heavy metal it seems fungi can buffer their tree partners against harm. A diversity of fungi is valuable to a tree, as different fungi will specialise in the various functions, so one species may be good at taking up particular nutrients, while another will be better at producing enzymes.

Trees have also been found to pass on carbon dioxide to other trees in need of it, even trees of different species, through the roots. This is also thanks to a symbiotic fungi in the soil. In fact new discoveries about roots really put them as essential and quite incredible things. I’m reading a lot about tree communication at the moment, I’ll write about it more once I’ve got my head round it. The idea of them having a “root brain” where the tips of the root are small neutron centres seems to fit in somehow.

 

 

Beech Tree

 

leafskeleton3

Beech leaf in winter. The drawing on the right is done in coloured pencil, and the one on the left done in watercolour paint about a month later.

I fell in love with a beech tree in Cornwall. A big beautiful tree on a hillside. It has a curious hollow in it’s trunk, triangular shaped and filled with water most of the year round. The water from the hollow of a Beech tree was traditionally used to help skin conditions such as eczema and scaly skin, and increase beauty. I thought I’d try out the Beech water’s beneficial effects on my skin so have been rubbing my face in this water. It does seem to make the skin more smooth.

A spell spoken to the roots of a Beech tree is said to come true. A curse spoken underneath its boughs is said to be effective if the tree approves. The Celtic God Fagus was associated the Beech, it is also seen as a feminine tree and associated with the god Danu, a female god of learning and knowledge. This isn’t surprising seeing as in Anglo Saxon the word for “beech” was “boc”, the source of the word “book” and beech wood was once used for carving words upon. A spell can be written on a beech leaf and buried to draw the support of the earth god.

In the winter this year when I was leaving Cornwall, going home to London, I went to say goodbye to the tree. I hugged it, it is a tree that feels good to hug, and whilst doing so I thought it would be nice to have a winter leaf skeleton to remember it by. I had been searching for leaf skeletons in the woods because they are good to draw but had not managed to find any so far this year. As I finished hugging the tree I looked down at my feet and there by my right foot was a beech leaf skeleton.

Oak

oak

 

The first tree that particularly fascinated me was the Oak. I have always felt a certain warmth for Oak, as many people do. They are strong deciduous trees found in British woodland and indeed in many other parts of the world.

Today I walked through the local park looking for an Oak. I found a large one up against the wall. I sat myself down to draw it , but I could not get far enough away to see the whole tree and it was so criss-crossed with its branches and the falling leaves that I soon got lost trying to draw it. I feel that this tree was going to take a lot more investigation than just a quick sketch. Then, with some amusement, the thought came into my head to look for the Green Man in it’s trunk. The Oak is often associated with the Green Man. At first I noticed nothing, the trunk looked the same ridgety complication all over. Then I flippantly asked the tree where the Green Man was, I looked again and there he was! Clear as anything, with a strong nose and brow.

The Oak has been called the “king of the woods”. A symbol of strength, protection and longevity, it was the tree sacred to Zeus in Greek mythology. Priests would read the pronouncements of the gods by reading the rustling of the Oaks leaves.

It was also sacred to the Norse God Thor, the god of thunder. Curiously the Oak is struck by lightning more than any other tree – unlike the Holly which detracts it – so much so that people would collect blackened pieces of Oak tree for good luck. I read recently that the Druids would not meet for rituals unless an Oak tree was present, so important was the Oak to their belief system. The old name for Oak is Duir and the name Druid is thought in part to be connected to the Oak, meaning “people of the oak”.

The Oak has been seen as the gateway to the Otherworld. In folklore the Oak is linked to the sacrificed king whose ritual death happens in midsummer. An old story about the Oak, popular in the medieval period, had the Oak as the king of the summer. Each year the Oak King fights the Holly King of the winter, each new spring the Oak King wins the battle, each new fall the Holly King wins.

An Oak can live to a thousand years old. Their powers of protection are thought to be great. Two twigs of Oak, bound with a red thread so that they form an equal armed cross, makes a safeguard against evil. It should be hung in the home. If someone is sick in your home and you have a fireplace make a fire of Oak wood to draw out the sickness. Carry an acorn against sickness and pains and to give you longevity. Carrying any piece of the Oak brings good luck. Carrying an acorn can increase fertility and increase sexual potency.

In spring Oaks produce both male catkins and small female flowers , their fruit is the acorn. It is a keystone species in many habitats, a number of types of truffle have symbiotic relationships with Oaks, and the small bird known as the European pied flycatcher builds it nest solely in Oak trees. Acorns and Oak leaves are poisonous to cattle, horses and sheep, but pigs can live off them and were often reared in oak forests. Indeed acorns formed an important food source for many early human cultures.

The other night i slept under the Oak tree in the park. It felt like a very safe place to be, though the knat stings were dreadful!

Sequences, Spirals and Dynamic Patterns

Notes on Fibonacci, spirals, the Chinese concept of Li, and examples of geometric patterns Fibonacci and Spirals2mud-cracks_9389_990x742.jpg

Headless People

headinchestA mythical people known as akephaloi (Greek “headless ones”) or Blemmyes had no head or neck and their eyes, nose and mouth were placed in their chest. They lived by the Nile, in Ethiopia, and in parts of India. Often naked, fierce and combat loving they were eight feet tall, their skin could turn to a golden colour and their beards could grow down to their knees. It was said their lacking of a heard was due to the sins of their ancestors

The Colour Green is a Thursday

whiterose1 1 I always see Thursday as green. I’m told this is a type of synesthesia. This picture I made from recycled Mills&Boon romance novels. It is loosely about lost love on a Thursday evening. I had a private view of my work that night, my boyfriend at the time came along as it ended and brought me a bunch of white roses. They looked unwell. I think we both knew it was over. The green of the leaves didn’t look quite right to me, and was much more noticeable than the flowers themselves. It was a messy London Thursday goodbye, an oldness pretending to be young.

On the visible spectrum green is the colour between blue and yellow. In painting it is considered a secondary colour because it can be mixed from the primary colours of blue and yellow. Green is middle of our colour range. It contains no red, no ultra-violet or infer red, it is just green.

Looking at the colour green has been found to help with cancer. The people of the rainforest are said to have very many words for green. If you walk into a wood in the summer and look up you can understand why. In nature there are so many different greens, it is of course the colour of photosynthesis, that magical spell that converts sunlight into chemical energy and gives us our oxygen. Interesting though I recently learnt that green is the only colour that is actually not used in the process of photosynthesis, which is why it is the one that is reflected out. A simple experiment that shows this is when tomatoe plants (or cress, I don’t think it makes much difference) are grown under different colours of light. They will be fine growing under only red light, only yellow or only blue, but under just green light they are not able to carry out photosynthesis, so die.

This explains that chlorophyll are green because they don’t use green light energy so green is reflected out. This is because chlorophyll arose in organisms in the ocean where halobacteria was already converting light energy to chemical energy using green wavelengths but not so much of red and blue wavelenghs, so chlorophyll was entrepreneurial and made use of the red and blue, reflecting out the green. Imagine if that had been the other way round, the world would look very different. Purple trees!

The modern English word for green comes from the same root as the Germanic words for grass and grow.

Symbolism

I am currently burning a green candle because green is the colour for Venus, the goddess of love and I could do with some care free love in my life right now.

In Europe and the U.S. green is the colour most associated with nature and growth, however is does have the negative symbolism of envy and illness. In America it is the colour of money, and it is the national colour of Ireland.

In Japan green is associated with eternal life, in China it is the symbol for health and happiness. Though in old Japanese, Chinese, Thai and Viennese green isn’t a separate colour but a shade of blue.

In North Africa it is the colour of corruption

In Islam it is the sacred colour representing respect and the prophet Mohammed, it was the colour of the banner of Mohammed and represents the lush green of paradise.
In Indonesia it is a forbidden colour.

Mixing Greens

For anyone who get curious about the colour green, mixing it is the ultimate way to get to know it. When painting greens for plants, ready made greens brought from a shop are rarely accurate to portray a green in nature. A ready made green can often look garish and false when applied directly to the paper. Even if one ready mixed one in the palette looks close I will try it with maybe a little alizarian, it’s complementary colour, to bring it down a touch and try this next to the subject. It amazes me what a difference just a spec of red can make.

Exercise mixing greens
Start by putting some lemon yellow in your palate. Using a soft flat brush put a sample of it in the top corner of a sheet of paper.
Clean your brush in water and take a very small amount of cobalt blue and add it to the lemon yellow. Put a sample of this next to the original yellow on your paper.
Repeat the last stage again adding a little bit more cobalt blue to the lemon yellow and add another sample alongside the previous two.
Continue this along the page with the greens getting increasingly bluish until the sample you have is almost completely blue. Label the sample Lemon yellow and cobalt blue

green2From yellow gradually adding more blue

Repeat this exercise all over again but instead of using cobalt blue use French Ultramarine. Remember to label the names of the colours next to the samples so you can use it for reference later. Do another sample strip u using Prussian blue. Now your sheet of paper should start to show the huge variety of greens it is possible to mix. Carry on the exercise doing a sample strip using all the different blues in your palate. Once you have done that choose one of those blues to keep the same and instead try all the different yellows you have, try cadmium yellow, yellow ochre, Indian yellow.

Make sure your water is clean and if not change it, you will get muddy unintended colours if using dirty water.

If painting natural objects you may find the greens you mix are a bit too bright. Improve this by adding the very tiniest drop of red to bring it down a touch, try Alizarin Crimson or Rose Madder. Be gentle though, you will be surprised at how the smallest amount can change the colour. Red is the complimentary colour to green, on the other side of the colour wheel, add too much to the mix and you’ll end up with a brown or grey. Though these can be used to good effect in shadows.

Even if you never intend to paint a picture, sitting and mixing greens is a very calming exercise. I recommend it on messy Thursdays.

Hazel “The Poet’s Tree”

hazelbranch

I have a horrible cough right now which just doesn’t seem to go away. I read on the internet that finely powdered hazelnuts mixed with water and honey can get rid of a stubborn cough. So I give it a go, hand grinding the hazelnuts in my pestle and mortar. I’m not sure if I’ve ground them fine enough but it does make quite a nice drink. We’ll see what it does for the cough.

Hazel was the name of my best friend at primary school, she was very clever. She got to the posh grammar school for intelligent girls, I got sent to the units for special needs children in the roughest school in the area. I was a very slow developer and could barely read at the time. I didn’t want to be Hazel’s friend after that, I ignored her calls and avoided her in town. Pride eh? Very foolish of me!

The Hazel was the tree of wisdom, according to Irish mythology. In the otherworldly realm there is a well from which the rivers of Ireland flow. In this well there swims a salmon and around it are nine sacred Hazel trees. The hazelnuts from these trees fall into the pool and are eaten by the salmon everyday so they themselves become wise. These wise salmon swim from the pool to the sea and back. If you manage to catch and eat the salmon you too will become wise and able to tell the future. Fionn mac Cumhailfrom, the hero of many an Irish legend, was cooking this salmon for his Druid mentor, who had been seeking the fish for a long time. He accidentally burnt his finger and sucked it to make it better, but juices of the salmon are on his finger so sucking it means that he gets the wisdom. His poor mentor gives up then, seeing at once that Fionn now has The Knowledge. This links into the practice of Imbas Forosnai, a type of inspired, fortune-telling poetry once practiced in Ireland. I’ll write more about this in another blog.

Hazel comes under the planet Mercury, the colour orange, the element air, and of course the god Hermes/Mercury. Hermes has the caduceus, a winged staff with two snakes twirling round it, and this was made of hazel wood.

The tree has been regarded as playful, wise, and enchanting. It was frequently used for divination and to find water or buried treasure. When my parents first moved to Pembrokshire and needed to find a well on their land, the locals didn’t hesitate to recommend the local diviner who, I believe, used a forked hazel branch, and it worked. Hazel is also excellent for making magic wands and walking sticks. In Irish legend it is sacred to the god of love and eloquence Oengus mac Og.

To enlist help of faerie folk thread several hazelnuts together on a string and hang in your home. Hazelnut twigs on a windowsill are said to protect against storms. Hazelnut necklaces are thought to bring good luck into the home. Three hazelnuts clumped together are lucky. If you are looking for poetic inspiration and magical insight chew on a hazelnut to induce this.

Hazel is a deciduous tree, often growing underneath oak and birch. In managed woodland it is frequently coppiced which extends its life from 80years to several hundred. Both male and female flowers grow on the same tree, but hazel flowers must be pollinated by pollen from other hazel trees. It is mainly wind pollinated, bees find it difficult to carry hazel pollen as it is sticky and the grains repell each other. The male flower is a yellow catkin that comes out in February before the leaves. The female flower is small and bud like with red styles. Once pollinated the female flowers develop into round fruits that hang in groups. They mature into nuts with a woody shell surrounded by a leafy husk. Hazel leaves are hairy and soft to the touch, oval in shape they are toothed and pointed at the tip. Hazel leaves turn yellow before falling in winter. Many caterpillars live off the hazel, this is particularly good for The Hazel Dormouse for they can eat the caterpillars in the summer months and save hazelnuts for hibernation in the winter.

In the spring hazel branches are particularly bendy. Semi permanent structures can be made by bent hazel poles tied into dome shapes and stuck into the earth and covered with hides or waterproof tarpaulin.

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My cough seems a little better now than it was this morning. I also read that hazelnuts taste particularly good with Salmon, I decide to give this a go. Delicious! And maybe it might make me a little wiser.

 

Mushrooms! And how they help the trees talk

mushrooms2Mushrooms are amazing, I love to eat them, to look at them, to draw them, and when I investigate them they are quite mind boggling. No, before you ask, I haven’t tried magic mushrooms, one day maybe.

Opposite where I live in Newington Green there is a magnificent greengrocers which sells all sorts of vegetables and fruit, from the everyday parsnip to the weird and wonderful where I can only guess at name and purpose. Among this there are mushrooms of many types. Although recently it has been decided that mushrooms aren’t actually vegetables, but closer to animals, I and the greengrocers aren’t worrying about that right now. Yesterday I brought a selection of the more visually enticing mushrooms to paint. A friend popped round and on seeing the mushrooms said “Are those colours real? They’re not edible are they? They look poisonous”. I paint them in watercolour laid out in a line. It is difficult though, they wither very quickly and darken in colour.

Autumn is the time for wild mushrooms, that smell of autumn woodlands is created by fungi working their way up through the soil. The mushroom itself is of course the flowering body of the fungi, the part that disperses the spores. Fungi themselves are everywhere, often microscopic they are on every surface, in the air we breath, and everywhere we put our foot. Underneath, in the soil, is an intricate web of fungi threads, called the mycelium, which can exist in the tiny body of a dead fly or span across an entire forest. In the Oregon’s Blue Mountains in the United States there is a mycelium that occupies 2384 acres and is thought to be between 2000 and 8000 years old!

A friend and I once created a mycelium installation at the ICA. It was good fun, black inside with threads criss crossing through it. Members of the public enjoyed going and just sitting inside. They said they found it comforting. Recently I feel like I need to dig a hole in the ground and bury myself inside, amongst the roots and threads, I haven’t done so yet, it is probably from me reading too much Brian Catling and his book of abandoned angels.

As mentioned before trees have symbiotic relationships with fungi. Apparently 90 per cent of all land plants have mutually beneficial relationships with fungi so it is nothing unusual. The tree obtains sugars through photosynthesis for the fungi and the fungi obtains nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen from the soil for the tree. Plants also communicate with each other through fungi. Mycelia link up plants that are wide apart. In the media this is often described as being like the world wide web, but so much is described as being like the internet these days the phrase makes me cringe. But trees can transfer carbon, phosphorous and nitrogen between themselves through the mycelia. A large tree can help a small young tree in this way. It has also been found that old trees that can no longer photosynthesis are sometimes kept alive by trees they are connected to through the mycelium. No one knows why.

Amazing thought that, plants are communicating with each other and using the fungal networks to do so. Trees can also use mycelium to transfer chemical signals warning other plants of oncoming signals. This was initially discovered on tomato plants. The tomato plants are grown in pairs. Some of them are allowed to form fungal networks and some aren’t. The leaves of one plant in each pair was sprayed with blight disease. Air-tight plastic bags were used to stop any above ground signalling between plants. After 65 hours the scientists tried to infect the second plant in each pair. They found that if the plant pair had been allowed to develop mycelia the second in the pair was much less likely to get the blight and if they did they had significantly lower levels of damage.

I suppose I cant really mention this relationship without mentioning the other side of it. Some trees have been found to pass poisons across through the mycelium. Some trees don’t like other trees growing too near them, they like some space to themselves, so they send out poison via their roots and the mycelium to poison potential newcomers. Bit like me in my flat.

Fungi also feed on dead organic matter, and what a vital role that is for without this the world would pile up with dead leaves, dead wood, dead animals and other matter. The dead matter is broken down and returned as nutrients in the soil for plants again. There is even rumours that mushrooms can affect the weather!

Today the mushrooms on my table have become shrivelled shadows of what they were. I finish the painting and am still determined to eat them. I slice them and fry them with a lot of garlic. Delicious! Much more tasty than your regular mushroom. And I’m not dead yet…

 

A class on drawing and painting mushrooms will take place at 3pm this Sunday (18th June 17) at The Greenhouse, 49 Green Lanes N16 9BU. thegreenhouselondon.com

 

Rain, Toads and the Alder Tree

I’m in Cornwall again, staying in the woods as before. It is raining ferociously which makes my plans of sleeping under the trees redundant, but it is still amazing. I like the rain, I don’t know why but I always have, perhaps it was because at school it used to mean games would be cancelled and I hated games. I remember once in a physics lesson leading a rain dance ritual to the horror of the physics teacher, because games was scheduled that afternoon. A few drops of rain landed on my nose that afternoon, but not enough for games to be cancelled.

I think it is the smell and the bright colours that rain brings which are now why I love it. Lou, whose wood this is, has just given me an article on the smell of rain. Apparently it is from bacterium released by the soil when it rains which humans are particularly sensitive to.

There is a big Alder tree by the river, I got a little wet trying to sketch it from the other side of the river yesterday. A curious tree, it has been cut back many times and regrown, I wonder how old it is, alders only live to about 60. I spend all afternoon studying it and the moss that crawls up its sides.  There is a summer house nearby so I don’t get soaked, but do feel somewhat heroic being out in the cold and rain.

The Alder tree was once seen to symbolise the balance between male and female as both male and female catkins appear on the same branch. It has also been associated with courage, strength and resurrection. In Austria it was once thought that Alder trees could raise the dead.

For me there is something friendly and strong about the Alder, I can’t say what, but it makes me feel comfortable. Though in the past some have thought of it as unlucky or hostile, perhaps because when cut the Alder turns an orange colour due to the sap which can look like blood.

It is a pioneer tree, fertilising the ground for future species, growing to around 20 m tall, it grows in wetland, swamps and by the side of rivers. Alder roots are visible above ground and often provide homes for otters, or fish. The flowers are in the form of catkins, the male catkin are long pendulous and yellow, the female are small, rounded and green, with 3 to 8 on a stalk. They flower between February and April and are mainly wind pollinated, though occasionally visited by bees.

The Alder lives in a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Frankia alni. The bacterium lives in the root nodules of the Alder tree, these can grow to the size of a human fist, where it absorbs nitrogen from the air and makes it available to the tree. The Alder in return provides the bacterium with sugar through its photosynthesis. This relationship is very beneficial to the soil, fertilising it and providing nitrogen for the plants and trees that follow.

The roots of the Alder are particularly tough in water and can become like stone. They are very resistant to rot when in water and were often used to shore up river banks. Due to this resilience under water the piles on which Venice stands are made of Alder. However when out of water in the open air it does rot, so is not so good for  building outdoors. It is good for making whistles and flutes. Fender guitars are made from Alder because of the smoothness of the wood.

Red dye can be made from the outer bark and yellow dye from the inner bark, green dye can be made from the flowers and is apparently what Robin Hood and faerie folk dyed their clothes in.

Alders by rivers and swamp can create a mysterious atmosphere indeed. They were thought to be closely connected to the faerie folk. In Irish mythology the first human is thought to be made from an Alder Tree, the first woman from a Rowan.
The giant and king, Bran the blessed, is connected to the Alder. Bran (meaning crow or raven) in Welsh mythology is said to make the bridge between Wales and Ireland for the Welsh to walk across in the battle to rescue his sister Branwen, similar to how the Alder has been used to build bridges. Bran was killed in the battle, but the welsh won. Bran’s still talking head remained talking after it was chopped off, and even managed to entertain the troops. It was eventually taken and buried where the Tower of London now stands.

Medically Alder has many uses that benefited the celts and native Americans alike. Put Alder leaves in your shoes before a long walk to keep your feet cool and prevent swelling. Alder contains salicin which is an anti-inflammatory. It has been used to treat skin irritations, insect bites, lymphatic disorders and tuberculosis. It is also thought to be of benefit in the treatment of some tumours.

Back to my Alder by the river. In the evening the rain ceases and there is a calm mist over the whole wood. We have a fire in the summer house. I listen to the water rippling and the birds in the tree, now the bats start to swoop through its branches. I drink my kings ginger nightcap and Mike, Lou’s partner, talks of his time in Cambridge studying philosophy, he recommends David Hume. On the way back to the house we come across lots of toads on the path. Fat beautiful creatures with warty skin in interesting patterns. The perfect way to end the night.

When I get back to London I will paint another toad picture on handmade paper, this paper seems to suit toads flesh. Maybe I will attempt to make dye from the Alder bark to paint it in.

Sketch of the Alder tree whilst in the rain.

 

The Black Poplar Tree and naked flying

poplarcatkin 2

I really enjoyed drawing this part of the poplar tree. I’d never looked that closely at a poplar before and didn’t realise how sticky the balsam is or how sweetly it smells. I highly recommend drawing it.

The other day I went into the garden to plant poplar tree sticks. They are sticks left over at the end of a botany class. I took loads of different sticks and put them in water in a tall glass jar. Their buds sprouted into leaves which I’ve been drawing, and amazingly the poplar sticks have started to grow roots. It gives off lots of very sticky sweet smelling treacle like substance, the balsam. I dug three holes in the garden, two near the fence where an old tree used to be, and one over the other side in the shade. I’ve no idea if they will grow, but it seems a shame not to give them a go now they have started rooting.

The treacle substance can be turned into a balm. It used to be very poplar with the witches for its flying properties. Poplar balsam was used in flying potions. I read that if I smear it all over my naked body and get on my broomstick I will be able to fly far and wide through the night sky. Smeared on certain parts of the body prior to ritual or meditation it can help with astral projection.

The wild poplar is very rare in Britain now, though it used to be native. There are many cultivated varieties though which can often be seen in parks. There is a phantom tree planter who has spent the last 30 years going round Britain planting Black Poplar trees where ever he sees a bit of space. He doesn’t bother getting permission, well then he wouldn’t be a phantom would he.

Black Poplars can grow to 30 metres tall and live 200 years. They grow very quickly and are best suited to damp marshy landscapes. The bark is a dark brown often appearing black. The leaves are triangular shaped and tremple and quiver in the wind, often sounding like they are singing, it was said that this is the tree praying.

Male and female catkins of the Poplar grow on different trees (dioecious), the female catkins are yellowish green, the male catkins are red and it used to be said that these red catkins, once fallen, were Devil’s fingers and bring bad luck if picked up.

Once fertilised the female catkins turn into fluffy seeds which fall in late summer, very attractive but difficult to draw.

Poplar wood was used to make shields by the Celts, and seen as very protective. The black poplar is sacred to Hecate, the death goddess. There was once a tradition of burying lamb’s tails under newly planted poplar trees at lamb docking time, as a sacrifice to the goddess of death.

It is the sticky balsam that most interests me at the moment. Its origins are explained in the Greek legend where Phaethon asks his father Helios, god of the sun, if he can drive his chariot of the sun across the heavens one day. He was not very successful at this, he did not have the strength to control the horses and the chariot was taken off course, taking the sun so close to the earth it nearly burnt. Zeus was very cross with this and killed Phaethon with a bolt of lightning. Phaethon’s sisters, who had helped convince their father to let Phaethon drive the chariot, saw his death and weeped so bitterly that the gods decided to turn them in to Poplar trees and their tears to amber tears formed by the oozing balsam.

The balm made from these tears has been used for many medical purposes such as rheumatism, gout, coughs and colds, but I’m going to use it for flying! One warm night this summer I’ll be venturing out to find a suitable black poplar, lying under it’s singing branches, covered in sticky balm I will go into a trance and I shall astral project myself to who knows where. Unfortunately I probably won’t be sky clad, as crowded London doesn’t lend itself to such freedom.