Perfect is a closed circle, static, fulfilled, existing out of time. An idea that does not really happen in nature because of the need for change and adaption in order to survive.
Take an oak tree. Imagine for now it is born from the perfect acorn in the perfect soil, it has every potential of becoming the perfect mushroom shaped oak seen in picture books. It grows into a stalk, and starts to develop leaves, but there are big holly bushes next to it, so it’s leaves can’t get much sunlight to photosynthesise. It is going to have to grow much taller than them. In its 30th year there is a harsh winter, so it drops some of its lower branches to conserve nutrients. In its 50th year a house is built to one side of it preventing sunlight reaching it from that side, so to make up for this it grows more on the other side giving it a somewhat crooked shape. The tree is a healthy oak that will live for a couple of hundred years, but it is not the perfect tree, it does not have that neat mushroom shape, it is crooked, tall, and sparse on the lower branches. It is the ability to change and not remain perfect that has meant it can live a long healthy life.
Now we imagined a perfect acorn, but evolution being as it is, that acorn probably wasn’t perfect, a genetic difference may have slightly altered the tree’s bark, or made it extra tasty for a particular insect. While in one case this could have been an annoyance and potentially damaging to the tree, in another the bark difference could make it particularly resistant harsh winds, so if it or one of its future acorns ended up on the Scotland Highlands it would have a better chance of survival than one that didn’t have that bark difference. Equally so being tasty to a particular insect could be damaging in one instance but if that insect happened to eat another more deadly insect that could infect the tree then being tasty to the first would be an advantage.
That is just one simplified example of the need to adapt and how the our idea of the classical closed perfect organism would not survive because it can not change and adapt to its environment.
If you get a compass and draw a circle on a piece of paper it may look perfect, you can call it perfect and others will agree. Yet time will smudge and fade the ink, it will tear and rot the paper, till eventually your perfect circle is nothing but mush. This mush will hopefully be put in the ground where if can feed another seed which will eventually grow into another plant that will feed another animal or maybe even a human who draws another perfect circle.
I’m taking over the running of the Monday morning drop-in class in Watercolour at Lordship Hub in Tottenham. 11:30 to 1.30.
Currently only £8.
Paints and brushes are provided. Paper can be purchased. All levels are very welcome. A subject is covered in each week, from landscape painting to portraiture, still-life and abstraction. It has a very relaxed environment with a nice group in the middle of a beautiful recreation ground. No need to book, just come along. Contact me for further details – email@example.com
Also at short notice I’m running a class at City Lit called Drawing into Watercolour which is very much for beginners who wish to explore Watercolour. Basic materials are provided. This is a 6 week course Tuesday evenings from 6 to 9pm. Full fee is £209, concession £127. Still time to book up but you need to do so quickly!
Geometry and Nature
This is a short course at CityLit for beginners. Learn to draw the patterns found in nature and find out about the golden ratio and the Fibonacci sequence.
Coming up early next year…
Drawing Nature – Botanical and Natural History Illustration
I’m starting a new class at St John in Bethnal Green every Saturday afternoon, beginning in January. More information coming soon.
There will also be my usual Botanical Illustration course at CityLit running from the end of January to mid March. For more info visit
Charles Darwin, aside from evolution, came up with the “root-brain” hypothesis along with his son Francis, in their book The Power of Movement of Plants. This suggests the roots act like a brain network. Ignored at the time (evolution was enough to deal with without the suggestion of trees having brains as well) it is only now beginning to be taken seriously.
I have been sitting drawing beech tree roots today. They are fascinating indeed. Largely unseen they undertake a big proportion of a trees practices and are often the same size as the tree above ground. Their skin can have an interesting textured quality and they curl around each other like snakes which is very good to draw. Where I live in London you can see the roots bursting through the Tarmac, looking distinctly like monsters from the underworld. What happens in roots and around roots is just as strange as what they look like.
Roots search the soil for water and minerals that they absorb and then send up to the leaves for photosynthesis. A root grows from its tip which it pushes forward through the soil. The root tip can detect the pull of gravity and aims itself downwards into the soil. Behind the root tip are root hairs that grow into the soil to gather supplies.
Fungi have symbiotic relationships with roots, this is called Mycorhizass. There are two main kinds of mycorrhiza, ones that penetrate the roots and ones that surround the roots without penetrating. The fungi transfer essential minerals such as nitrogen and phosphorous from decaying matter to the tree. The fungi cannot photosynthesis so the tree does this for them, providing the fungi with energy.
Other advantages to such relationships include speeding plant growth, stimulating fine root development and lengthening the life of the roots. They can also protect plants from drought, predators (such as nematode worms), and micro-organisms that cause disease. In areas polluted by toxic heavy metal it seems fungi can buffer their tree partners against harm. A diversity of fungi is valuable to a tree, as different fungi will specialise in the various functions, so one species may be good at taking up particular nutrients, while another will be better at producing enzymes.
Trees have also been found to pass on carbon dioxide to other trees in need of it, even trees of different species, through the roots. This is also thanks to a symbiotic fungi in the soil. In fact new discoveries about roots really put them as essential and quite incredible things. I’m reading a lot about tree communication at the moment, I’ll write about it more once I’ve got my head round it. The idea of them having a “root brain” where the tips of the root are small neutron centres seems to fit in somehow.
I fell in love with a beech tree in Cornwall. A big beautiful tree on a hillside. It has a curious hollow in it’s trunk, triangular shaped and filled with water most of the year round. The water from the hollow of a Beech tree was traditionally used to help skin conditions such as eczema and scaly skin, and increase beauty. I thought I’d try out the Beech water’s beneficial effects on my skin so have been rubbing my face in this water. It does seem to make the skin more smooth.
A spell spoken to the roots of a Beech tree is said to come true. A curse spoken underneath its boughs is said to be effective if the tree approves. The Celtic God Fagus was associated the Beech, it is also seen as a feminine tree and associated with the god Danu, a female god of learning and knowledge. This isn’t surprising seeing as in Anglo Saxon the word for “beech” was “boc”, the source of the word “book” and beech wood was once used for carving words upon. A spell can be written on a beech leaf and buried to draw the support of the earth god.
In the winter this year when I was leaving Cornwall, going home to London, I went to say goodbye to the tree. I hugged it, it is a tree that feels good to hug, and whilst doing so I thought it would be nice to have a winter leaf skeleton to remember it by. I had been searching for leaf skeletons in the woods because they are good to draw but had not managed to find any so far this year. As I finished hugging the tree I looked down at my feet and there by my right foot was a beech leaf skeleton.
The first tree that particularly fascinated me was the Oak. I have always felt a certain warmth for Oak, as many people do. They are strong deciduous trees found in British woodland and indeed in many other parts of the world.
Today I walked through the local park looking for an Oak. I found a large one up against the wall. I sat myself down to draw it , but I could not get far enough away to see the whole tree and it was so criss-crossed with its branches and the falling leaves that I soon got lost trying to draw it. I feel that this tree was going to take a lot more investigation than just a quick sketch. Then, with some amusement, the thought came into my head to look for the Green Man in it’s trunk. The Oak is often associated with the Green Man. At first I noticed nothing, the trunk looked the same ridgety complication all over. Then I flippantly asked the tree where the Green Man was, I looked again and there he was! Clear as anything, with a strong nose and brow.
The Oak has been called the “king of the woods”. A symbol of strength, protection and longevity, it was the tree sacred to Zeus in Greek mythology. Priests would read the pronouncements of the gods by reading the rustling of the Oaks leaves.
It was also sacred to the Norse God Thor, the god of thunder. Curiously the Oak is struck by lightning more than any other tree – unlike the Holly which detracts it – so much so that people would collect blackened pieces of Oak tree for good luck. I read recently that the Druids would not meet for rituals unless an Oak tree was present, so important was the Oak to their belief system. The old name for Oak is Duir and the name Druid is thought in part to be connected to the Oak, meaning “people of the oak”.
The Oak has been seen as the gateway to the Otherworld. In folklore the Oak is linked to the sacrificed king whose ritual death happens in midsummer. An old story about the Oak, popular in the medieval period, had the Oak as the king of the summer. Each year the Oak King fights the Holly King of the winter, each new spring the Oak King wins the battle, each new fall the Holly King wins.
An Oak can live to a thousand years old. Their powers of protection are thought to be great. Two twigs of Oak, bound with a red thread so that they form an equal armed cross, makes a safeguard against evil. It should be hung in the home. If someone is sick in your home and you have a fireplace make a fire of Oak wood to draw out the sickness. Carry an acorn against sickness and pains and to give you longevity. Carrying any piece of the Oak brings good luck. Carrying an acorn can increase fertility and increase sexual potency.
In spring Oaks produce both male catkins and small female flowers , their fruit is the acorn. It is a keystone species in many habitats, a number of types of truffle have symbiotic relationships with Oaks, and the small bird known as the European pied flycatcher builds it nest solely in Oak trees. Acorns and Oak leaves are poisonous to cattle, horses and sheep, but pigs can live off them and were often reared in oak forests. Indeed acorns formed an important food source for many early human cultures.
The other night i slept under the Oak tree in the park. It felt like a very safe place to be, though the knat stings were dreadful!
A mythical people known as akephaloi (Greek “headless ones”) or Blemmyes had no head or neck and their eyes, nose and mouth were placed in their chest. They lived by the Nile, in Ethiopia, and in parts of India. Often naked, fierce and combat loving they were eight feet tall, their skin could turn to a golden colour and their beards could grow down to their knees. It was said their lacking of a heard was due to the sins of their ancestors
I always see Thursday as green. I’m told this is a type of synesthesia. This picture I made from recycled Mills&Boon romance novels. It is loosely about lost love on a Thursday evening. I had a private view of my work that night, my boyfriend at the time came along as it ended and brought me a bunch of white roses. They looked unwell. I think we both knew it was over. The green of the leaves didn’t look quite right to me, and was much more noticeable than the flowers themselves. It was a messy London Thursday goodbye, an oldness pretending to be young.
On the visible spectrum green is the colour between blue and yellow. In painting it is considered a secondary colour because it can be mixed from the primary colours of blue and yellow. Green is middle of our colour range. It contains no red, no ultra-violet or infer red, it is just green.
Looking at the colour green has been found to help with cancer. The people of the rainforest are said to have very many words for green. If you walk into a wood in the summer and look up you can understand why. In nature there are so many different greens, it is of course the colour of photosynthesis, that magical spell that converts sunlight into chemical energy and gives us our oxygen. Interesting though I recently learnt that green is the only colour that is actually not used in the process of photosynthesis, which is why it is the one that is reflected out. A simple experiment that shows this is when tomatoe plants (or cress, I don’t think it makes much difference) are grown under different colours of light. They will be fine growing under only red light, only yellow or only blue, but under just green light they are not able to carry out photosynthesis, so die.
This explains that chlorophyll are green because they don’t use green light energy so green is reflected out. This is because chlorophyll arose in organisms in the ocean where halobacteria was already converting light energy to chemical energy using green wavelengths but not so much of red and blue wavelenghs, so chlorophyll was entrepreneurial and made use of the red and blue, reflecting out the green. Imagine if that had been the other way round, the world would look very different. Purple trees!
The modern English word for green comes from the same root as the Germanic words for grass and grow.
I am currently burning a green candle because green is the colour for Venus, the goddess of love and I could do with some care free love in my life right now.
In Europe and the U.S. green is the colour most associated with nature and growth, however is does have the negative symbolism of envy and illness. In America it is the colour of money, and it is the national colour of Ireland.
In Japan green is associated with eternal life, in China it is the symbol for health and happiness. Though in old Japanese, Chinese, Thai and Viennese green isn’t a separate colour but a shade of blue.
In North Africa it is the colour of corruption
In Islam it is the sacred colour representing respect and the prophet Mohammed, it was the colour of the banner of Mohammed and represents the lush green of paradise.
In Indonesia it is a forbidden colour.
For anyone who get curious about the colour green, mixing it is the ultimate way to get to know it. When painting greens for plants, ready made greens brought from a shop are rarely accurate to portray a green in nature. A ready made green can often look garish and false when applied directly to the paper. Even if one ready mixed one in the palette looks close I will try it with maybe a little alizarian, it’s complementary colour, to bring it down a touch and try this next to the subject. It amazes me what a difference just a spec of red can make.
Exercise mixing greens
Start by putting some lemon yellow in your palate. Using a soft flat brush put a sample of it in the top corner of a sheet of paper.
Clean your brush in water and take a very small amount of cobalt blue and add it to the lemon yellow. Put a sample of this next to the original yellow on your paper.
Repeat the last stage again adding a little bit more cobalt blue to the lemon yellow and add another sample alongside the previous two.
Continue this along the page with the greens getting increasingly bluish until the sample you have is almost completely blue. Label the sample Lemon yellow and cobalt blue
From yellow gradually adding more blue
Repeat this exercise all over again but instead of using cobalt blue use French Ultramarine. Remember to label the names of the colours next to the samples so you can use it for reference later. Do another sample strip u using Prussian blue. Now your sheet of paper should start to show the huge variety of greens it is possible to mix. Carry on the exercise doing a sample strip using all the different blues in your palate. Once you have done that choose one of those blues to keep the same and instead try all the different yellows you have, try cadmium yellow, yellow ochre, Indian yellow.
Make sure your water is clean and if not change it, you will get muddy unintended colours if using dirty water.
If painting natural objects you may find the greens you mix are a bit too bright. Improve this by adding the very tiniest drop of red to bring it down a touch, try Alizarin Crimson or Rose Madder. Be gentle though, you will be surprised at how the smallest amount can change the colour. Red is the complimentary colour to green, on the other side of the colour wheel, add too much to the mix and you’ll end up with a brown or grey. Though these can be used to good effect in shadows.
Even if you never intend to paint a picture, sitting and mixing greens is a very calming exercise. I recommend it on messy Thursdays.